Geometric, structural, and control co-design for undersea kites


Focusing on a marine hydrokinetic energy application, this paper presents a combined geometric, structural, and control co-design framework for optimizing the performance of energy-harvesting kites subject to structural constraints. While energy-harvesting kites can offer more than an order of magnitude more power per unit of mass than traditional fixed turbines, they represent complex flying devices that demand robust, efficient flight controllers and are presented with significant structural loads that are larger with more efficient flight.

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DOE Project Name: Device Design and Robust Periodic Motion Control of an Ocean Kite System for Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Harvesting
DOE Project Number: EE0008635
DOE Project Lead: Carrie Noonan
Last Updated: 8 months ago
Data from September, 2020
Submitted Feb 10, 2021


North Carolina State University



Publicly accessible License 


Chris Vermillion
North Carolina State University
Kartik Naik
North Carolina State University
Sumedh Beknalkar
North Carolina State University
Andre Mazzoleni
North Carolina State University


MHK, Marine, Hydrokinetic, energy, power, model, modeling, control, optimization, co-design, geometric, structural, steady flight, wing, fuselage, design, control proxy function, ocean kite, tethered kite, tidal kite, controller, CEC


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